Best Koi Pond and Goldfish Articles On Web

1. How to keep pond fish in good condition. Koi Pond Goldfish Health Checks

By making water quality a priority for our ponds, once introduced the fish will more or less look after themselves. They will not be stressed or easily succumb to disease and as long as you keep an eye on a number of key aspects you will be rewarded by happy, healthy fish. Prevention is better (and cheaper!) than cure.

2. 10 things you should know about inheriting a pond

I often wonder what it would take for those same koi keepers to consider moving house. Even more so when taking into consideration the considerable financial investment as well as the many hours of blood, sweat and tears it has taken to construct the pond. I also wonder whether such a feature in the back garden could work in favour or against a quick house sale. Either way, many koi keepers and pond owners do move house, which means that the new owners will inevitably inherit a pond. As it is likely that the new owner has no pond keeping experience, they are likely to be in two minds as to what to do with the pond. Likewise, if you find yourself in the position of being a new home (and pond owner), what are your options?

3. Algicides algae, green pond water. Implications for koi and goldfish ponds

Blanc-kit algicide safe in koi ponds & kills blanketweed Green water neednt be a problem for any pond owner who has recirculating water in their pond since ultra violet units (adapted from the food processing industry) have been introduced to the pond and aquatics industry.

Blanc Kit Blanket weed removal

Blanc-Kit Excel is specially formulated to create a pond environment resistant to blanket weed without the use of harsh chemicals

4. Biological filtration uses bacteria to remove pond waste or muck

A pond is quite literally alive with micro organisms that have colonised to exploit the food and favourable conditions for their own benefit. These micro organisms (predominantly bacteria) are attracted to the freely available food that is produced by your fish, taking up residence wherever they can find suitable accommodation.

5. Blanc-kit algicide safe in koi ponds & kills blanketweed

Blanc-kit algicide safe in koi ponds & kills blanketweed Green water neednt be a problem for any pond owner who has recirculating water in their pond since ultra violet units (adapted from the food processing industry) have been introduced to the pond and aquatics industry.

6. Blanketweed koi pond problems. Clear water aids blanketweed growth

Blanc-kit algicide safe in koi ponds & kills blanketweed Green water neednt be a problem for any pond owner who has recirculating water in their pond since ultra violet units (adapted from the food processing industry) have been introduced to the pond and aquatics industry.

7. Blanketweed, thick layer of algae over top of pond water

Blanc-kit algicide safe in koi ponds & kills blanketweed Green water neednt be a problem for any pond owner who has recirculating water in their pond since ultra violet units (adapted from the food processing industry) have been introduced to the pond and aquatics industry.

8. Breeding koi. Breed goldfish pond fish, Spawning generally

I would like to start breeding my own koi but Im not really sure how to go about it. I have read some books on the subject but I still feel as though I need a lot more information. Can you help me out?

9. Bringing fish and pond and water out of winter into spring

Over the winter I have let my fish hibernate away. I decided not to keep my pond heated but did keep it covered through the coldest months. I stopped feeding them but checked them every day and made sure they were okay.

10. Buying Koi collections from koi dealers beware KHV sellers importers exporters privately

I want some advice on where to buy my koi. Ive heard a lot of stories from various people saying some good and bad things about koi dealers and Im just a bit confused as to who I should be listening to

11. Care for koi and goldfish fish. From birth or egg to adult

In a similar fashion by which birds can be encouraged to take up residence, nest and produce young in our gardens, fish too can be encouraged to breed and produce additional offspring for our ponds.

12. Carp Natural Diets. Koi Carp Eat Natural Nutritional Foods Too

If nutrient levels in the water are high (eutrophic) promoting prolific microscopic phytoplankton growth then it is highly likely that such a water body will support a large biomass of fish. It is as a result of this principle that fish farmers fertilise their ponds prior to stocking, ensuring an abundance of live food for fry.

13. Carp, Koi Goldfish. Digestion Pond Fish With No Stomach

We have already seen how the carp is an adaptable fish by being so productive in a varied and changing food environment. The carps productivity is even more remarkable when taking a closer look at its digestive system.

14. Choosing Preformed Rigid Fish Ponds or Garden Pond Liners

Preformed or pond liner? There are 2 off-the-shelf- solutions for creating a pond. a. The preformed pond (semi-rigid plastic or glass-fibre ponds) b. The flexible liner (a flexible water-proof sheet)

15. Clear koi ponds versus muddy koi or goldfish mud ponds

I am about to start building my first ever koi pond but wanted to ask some advice first on which style to have.

16. Cloudy Koi or Goldfish Pond Water How do I clear murky pond water

Murky water is not necessarily an indicator of poor water quality, in the same way as crystal clear water does not always represent perfect water quality.

17. Colorful Koi Feeding Koi for Good Colour Development

Feeding koi should not simply be regarded as satisfying their hunger. It is an opportunity. We have seen that a kois diet is instrumental when endeavouring to improve their health and growth. The final of the 3 most desirable characteristics that can be enhanced through their diet is colour.

18. Cycling nutrients in koi goldfish ponds oxygen nitrogen

A koi pond is a miniature representation of many processes that take place in the wider living world. It behaves in a similar way to many natural environments in that it interacts continuously with the adjacent environments and elements, causing its own characteristics to change to a lesser or greater extent

19. Diffusion, Osmosis - At the heart of every koi and koi pond.

In this series on Total Pond Management that explores a number of processes that interact to produce an aquatic ecosystem (and give a koi pond its characteristics), we will meet many processes and phenomena that operate largely unnoticed.

20. Digestion & Excretion in Koi. Vital for Koi & life of a natural koi pond.

Two fundamental processes performed by koi in effect prime the rest of the ecosystem, where other organisms lag behind and react to the actions of koi. These processes are digestion and excretion

21. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration ponds airstones air pumps for aeration

At various times this summer I have seen my Koi gasping at the pond surface and around my waterfall. Does this mean that there is not enough oxygen in the pond? Is this because of exceptionally high temperatures or for some other reason? I have a waterfall and a Blagdon air pump with two airstones; my pond is 3,500 gallons. Do I need more aeration than this? What can I do to prevent this happening in the future? If this is due to a lack of oxygen, will this do any damage to the health of my Koi?

22. DIY Pond Installation - Flexible Pond Liner or Preformed Pools?

There are two or three different types of preformed pool available, offering us differing degrees of rigidity, lifetime expectancy and size. The most basic of preformed pools are made from a very flexible thin plastic that is moulded into various shapes, usually holding up to 70 gallons.

23. Dose Pond Medications Filter Starters Enzyme Treatments.

Maintaining a healthy and stable pond environment is the single most effective method of ensuring fish stay in top condition. This is best achieved by filtering the pond, introducing fish gradually, feeding wisely and not over stocking. Fishkeeping perfection must be so easy!

24. Effects of medications, treatments koi fish, koi pond health

In many respects, fish are unique when compared to other animals in the pet world. Koi are kept in an environment that is alien to ours, making interaction very limited, and they can also quite happily go months without feeding.

25. Encyclopaedia (A-Z) Koi Goldfish Pond Fish Pond Keeping

Terms used in koi and goldfish and other pond fish systems

26. Feeding Koi: Food & Health. Protein Carbohydrates Vitamins C Lipids

Our understanding and appreciation of koi foods is limited, being at the mercy of koi food manufacturers that present us with long lists of ingredients and claims about their products. As we are not able to test or in extreme cases interpret the science we are rarely in a position to question such claims.

27. Feeding pond gold fish. How to feed koi pellets to koi floating or sinking?

Feeding time is arguably the most enjoyable koi keeping activity. It brings koi and koi keeper together and reaffirms the relationship we have with our koi.

28. First Aid for Sick Fish - Change in koi goldfish behaviour patterns

Of course, a change is only noticeable if you are confident of identifying normal fish behaviour. You can only get a good feel for your fishs behaviour by watching them regularly and getting accustomed to typical behaviour.

29. Fish Medications Pond Treatments For Sick Koi & Goldfish

Aquarium and pond treatments are big business and it is evident how much fishkeepers are cursed with disease when viewing the range of bottles, boxes and powders stocked by aquatic dealers to treat fish

30. Floating cages, pond nets, floating baskets, koi bowls

A floating cage net is an invaluable addition to the koi keepers cupboard as it allows the isolation of a koi without removing it from its preferred environment - your pond.

31. Garden Fish Pond Pumps Types Designs Performance Functions

There are two types of pond pump available to the pond keeper - the external or surface-mounted pump and the submersible pump.

32. Ghost Koi New koi fish variety gold silver metallic scales

Ghost Koi. A new variety of koi appeared in the trade in the early 1980s under the intriguing name of ghost koi. Nearly two decades later, the range of fish available to the trade under this description is almost as diverse as the number of outlets that sell them.

33. Go Sanke Kohanu Showa Top 3 Koi Varieties White Red Black Mix

Go Sanke is the collective name given to describe the 3 most respected varieties of koi Kohaku Sanke Showa. They are highly regarded on account of their complex genetic make up which makes high quality specimens particularly difficult to produce.

34. Gold fish. How to care for & feed goldfish in garden ponds

The goldfish is the golden variety of a lowland freshwater carp species whose biology and lifestyle is adapted to slow and still waters.

35. Goldfish popular pond fish.Goldfish easy to breed feed keep

The goldfishs popularity goes far deeper than its physical beauty, but even to this day, many hundreds of years after its discovery, the goldfish is the fish against which other fish are compared. It is the fish that everybody recognises.

36. Goldfish types fancy gold fish, shubunkins, comets, lionheads

The goldfish has very humble beginnings, with its first natural mutation simply being a change in its colour. It dropped its brown demeanour for a yellow finish, and endeared itself to those who had initially reared it for food.

37. Healthy Koi Gold Fish Ponds More About Fish Pond Water Treatments

Every garden pond, even the smallest contains a living ecosystem. We can fall into the trap of regarding the water in a pond as playing an insignificant part in maintaining our fish in tip-top health. This misconception is all the more evident when confronted with sick or unhealthy fish. We readily reach for a chemical that will treat the fish, hoping to cure the problem.

38. How big do koi grow? Koi - Going for growth. Large koi fish

It is the potential that koi have of growing into jumbo fish that often draws people into keeping koi for the first time. It is usually the really large koi in a collection that leave a lasting impression, even when shown alongside other smaller higher-grade koi

39. How clays and buffers work in koi ponds acid conditions pH

Buffers: Koi benefit significantly from stable water conditions, where water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, ammonia and nitrite should be maintained within desirable levels.

40. How Do I care For My Garden Fish Pond In Cold Winter

This will be my first winter since building my koi pond in April 2003. My pond is relatively small, about 1,000 gallons and it has an Aquamax 5,500 pump with a 20 watt UV and small pump-fed filter.

41. How feeding koi or goldfish can affect pond water quality

It is helpful to understand the various implications for both koi and koi pond that are being fed regularly, the reasons why particular changes in water quality occur and the measures we can take to reduce them.

42. How Stuff Works. Koi pond protein skimmers foam separator fractionators

Koi pond protein skimmer or foam separator ...Consequently foam separation is a more accurate term as the unit removes the foam from a pond taking with it a host of compounds that will include: amino acids, organic dyes, fatty acids, carbohydrates, enzymes, detergents and many inorganic compounds such as metal ions that may leave being linked to other compounds.

43. How submersible pond pumps work. Pondpumps supply pond filter

The submersible pump has been instrumental in making successful pond keeping accessible to any would-be pond or koi keeper. A reliable pump is essential for successful pond keeping because of its inseparable relationship with a ponds bio-filter

44. How to avoid overstocking your koi fish or goldfish pond

We have a similar consideration when stocking our pond with koi. Each pond is different, and has a different capacity for koi. A koi ponds cupboard space is determined by its ability to safely hold koi, providing them with a healthy environment and giving them space for growth.

45. How to avoid overstocking your koi pond, keep healthy ponds

We have a similar consideration when stocking our pond with koi. Each pond is different, and has a different capacity for koi. A koi ponds cupboard space is determined by its ability to safely hold koi, providing them with a healthy environment and giving them space for growth.

46. How to bag catch move transport koi gold fish & pond fish species

Koi are tolerant of being transported many thousands of miles for many hours in a plastic bag, and compared to some of their previous journeys, your kois next trip will seem like a walk around the block

47. How to breed goldfish in a pond. Gold fish breeding success

Goldfish were discovered by mistake, when their brown ancestors were bred for food thousands of years ago in China. Now they are bred commercially across many continents to feed our eyes and our insatiable demand for glowing pond dwellers

48. How To Buy Pond Pumps How To Compare A Pond Pump with another

If youre considering building a pond that features a fountain or waterfall, or are looking to install a UVc and filter, then youll need a pump.

49. How to carry out a partial water change in a koi pond

In the short term, a mature biofilter manages to keep on top of the day-to-day balancing act, by processing and detoxifying the steady supply of ammonia and other toxic products produced by fish on an hourly basis. However our unnatural pond suffers from truncated nutrient cycles, meaning that the various elements have been detoxified they cannot be totally recycled

50. How to choose a pond pump. Pond pump flow head power

A pump is not essential for keeping a pond clear and stocked with fish but by adding a pump that circulates water through a filter, you are able to keep more fish in your pond and guarantee clear water (when using a UVc).

51. How to choose gold fish, koi or other pond fish with success

Most pondkeepers have experienced some problems or have heard of other peoples experiences when it comes to stocking a pond with fish.

52. How To Control A Low and Fluctuating pH Level in Pond Water.

The koi are very tame and range in size from about 8 up to 18 . As a Fathers Day present my daughter bought me a testing kit for the pond. It tests for ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and pH.

53. How to do partial water change koi pond or goldfish pond

Top tips for a successful water change: step-by-step guide.

54. How to find pond leak. Leaking pond or drop in pond water level

Ive been experiencing a drop in the water level of my pond over the past few weeks. How can I find out if my pond is leaking? What can cause a pond to leak, and how can I fix the problem?

55. How to improve or enhance your Koi pond fish colours

There are many factors that conspire against koi (and koi keepers) when endeavouring to enhance their colour. Rather than exploring the factors that can negate our colour enhancing activities, it is more productive to concentrate on the most significant factors that will control a kois colour - and they are

56. How to inherit a pond. Checklist for your garden fish pond

A surprising number of people who own a pond were introduced to water gardening by accident. Their foray into the outdoor aquatic world arising as a result of a house move, having a pond fall into their lives.

57. How to keep fish. Keeping Koi and Goldfish For Beginners

Fish keeping is unlike keeping any other typical pet, such as a cat, dog, rabbit, or hamster etc, in that they live by a completely different code.

58. How to look after your koi or goldfish while on holiday

We can take cat to relatives or even a cattery - simple enough, but what are our options when leaving a koi pond for a fortnight in the summer? How do we best ensure the health (and more recently, security) of our pond in our absence

59. How to move your fish safely. Moving koi goldfish & stress

A useful piece of equipment that can make life easier for you and your pond fish is a large floating cage net. Your fish can be netted at leisure and deposited into the floating cage, and then , when your bags and assistance is ready, they can be lifted swiftly into the bags, ready to be transported

60. How to move your koi or goldfish safely with as little stress as possible.

Carp have been transported for hundreds of years without the use of transport tanks or polythene bags. Monks transported carp between ponds and around Europe by wrapping them in moist cloth and carrying them in carp sacks

61. How To Prepare Water Garden Fish Pond for Spring Time

The water garden too has been experiencing a period of inactivity and will benefit from some maintenance before the plants, fish and frogs begin to emerge from their winter hideaway

62. How to prevent & treat goldfish problems in garden ponds

Goldfish are peace-loving, non-aggressive fish. They keep themselves to themselves and if provided with a healthy pond environment, will have the potential to outlive an other household pet.

63. How to prevent a heron from taking my goldfish & koi fish

The incidents of heron predation on koi and garden ponds appears to be on the increase as they try to keep up with the continued rise in popularity of ponds and water features.

64. How to reduce koi pond maintenance enjoy the pond more

Its at times like these that it is tempting to cut corners in pond maintenance and koi care, looking for time saving opportunities when once you could delight in cleaning the filter, you now look for an opportunity not to do sol

65. How to restart your pond after winter. Pond equipment care

Even during the months of relative inactivity over winter, your pond and its life-supporting hardware will have undergone significant changes having experienced the physical extremes of our climate. Now is the time to take stock and respond to your assessment of the pond and its equipment, ensuring that winter merges seamlessly into spring and then on into summer.

66. How to rid your pond of blanketweed. Blanc-Kit. What is blanket weed?

Blanc-Kit works well. Blanket weed is an alga, it is a relatively primitive form of plant life that is very successful at colonising and dominating an environment under favourable conditions. Blanket weed spreads and recolonises vegetatively, by branching off and breaking off parts of its own structure which will then colonise new areas. Biologically speaking, this can be a risky strategy,

67. How To Tell Sex Of Koi. Differences male female koi pheromones

In the world of koi, the opposite is true, where male and female koi maintain the differentiation between sex roles, yet at times may be different to tell the sexes apart.

68. How to test all koi goldfish & water garden pond parameters

Time and time again we read and are told that water quality is of paramount importance when keeping fish, especially koi.

69. How water filters work, zeolite ion exchange impurities eg chloramine

In summary, water purification uses a series of complementary filtration processes that involve both mechanical and chemical means to produce purified water. Our tap water can deliver quite unpredictable levels of ions and other contaminants such as herbicides and pesticides, as well as chlorine and chloramine that would otherwise accumulate in our pond, causing koi chronic health problems.

70. I have a power failure what happens to my koi goldfish pond

Unfortunately, as koi keepers, the consequences for our koi are likely to be a little more severe than discomfort as the stability of their pond environment is completely dependent on an uninterrupted supply of power

71. Improving Discoloured Water Dissolved Oxygen Concentration DOC

With respect to water parameters such as pH and hardness, opinions vary as to what is meant by perfect. Providing koi with a stable chemistry within the acceptable limits is much preferred to continual alterations to water quality in an attempt to hit the jackpot.

72. Intermittent cloudy garden fish pond water algae UV solutions

The problem I encounter every year is that from late Spring through to Summer, whenever the sun warms up and shines on the pond, the water clouds over giving a horrible brown and dirty effect, but by the morning the water is clear until the sun comes out again.

73. Japanese koi, Niigata Japan Koi Quality Breeding Selection

Furthermore, to improve the quest for quality, koi breeders in Japan will often specialise in one or two closely related varieties, whose genes, broodstock and bloodlines they can concentrate on for generations.

74. KHV Koi Herpes Virus (KHV). What is it, and What happens next?

The balance between our rights and responsibilities has been highlighted by the appearance of a new koi virus, Koi Herpes Virus (KHV) which has already been the cause of a number of health issues in the UK, leading to rumour and uncertainty at all levels within the hobby and industry

75. Koi A to Z Dactylogyrus (Gill Fluke) Disease Doitsu Dropsy Koi Diet Depth

D is for Depressing! The majority of the Ds seem to be negative - disease, dropsy, Dactylogyrus, diet(my wife thinks so!) and I could have included death

76. Koi Clubs, Goldfish Clubs and Garden or Pond Fish Societies

One of the many appeals of fishkeeping is that it can be enjoyed by such a wide range of people. If that were not true, then I wouldnt have been able to start keeping fish all those years ago funded only by my meagre pocket money. Fishkeeping can also be the want of millionaires, spending thousands on an impressive collection of Japanese koi.

77. Koi different origins Japan, Israel, England. What is difference

I want to purchase some more koi for my pond as I havent bought any for a while. Normally I would go for Japanese koi but recently Ive been wondering what the difference is between Japanese, Israeli and English koi?

78. Koi Food Types Ingredients Nutrients Growth Vitamins Colour Enhancer

We can choose to feed our koi a number of different types of artificial koi food and yet all types can contain the same ingredients

79. Koi goldfish pond covers over winter. How to look after pondfish

Putting koi through a typical UK winter experience is regarded by many as a matter of potluck as to whether they will pull through to the spring. That is, we keep our fingers crossed and hope that the koi have eaten sufficiently well and that the ice doesnt come too fast and thick that the koi

80. Koi Goldfish Pond Fish Diets. Manufactured refined koi foods

In fact, there is very little difference between the dietary requirements of koi and other pond fish such as goldfish, comets and shubunkins. Manufactured koi diets tend to be a little more refined than pond fish diets with a greater emphasis on protein content and colour enhancement.

81. Koi Goldfish Pond Management Water Quality, Nutrition, Health

The most influential organisms in a pond are aerobic, requiring a steady supply of oxygen. Besides koi, this includes plant life, and the vast majority of micro-organisms that become established in their own niche. If we supply additional aeration to a pond, besides having a direct beneficial effect on koi health, it will also boost the performance and health of the pond

82. Koi Goldfish Ponds. Spring jobs make your pond spring ready
Koi Goldfish Ponds. Spring jobs make your pond spring ready

83. Koi Medications Treatments Parasites Infections Organisms Fungus Salt

Pond treatments are big business and it is evident how much as koi keepers we are cursed with disease when viewing the range of bottles, boxes and powders stocked by koi dealers to treat our koi.

84. Koi or Fish Pond Test Kits and how to use pond test kits

Fish Pond Test kits are the most popular method of analysing pond water. They rely on a chemical reaction between a reagent and pond water, resulting in a colour change that can be compared against a colour chart. Colourmetric test kits are available in 3 forms.

85. Koi Pond A-Z Malchite Green, Medication, Microscope, Mucus,

Malachite is an intense dark green dye that is widely used in the treatment of many koi ailments. It has even historically been used as an antiseptic in the treatment of wounds in humans. Different grades are available but the less toxic zinc-free malachite green is used in the treatment of koi and other fish to treat fungus and microscopic external parasites such as Chilodinella, Costia and White Spot.

86. Koi Pond Fish. What are koi and where do koi fish come from?

Koi is an abbreviation of nishikigoi, a general term given by the Japanese to coloured koi with markings which are bred for their ornamental value. Their origin can be traced as far back as 2500 years ago when the word koi was first used to describe the black ancestors of the beautifully coloured nishikigoi that we admire and keep in our ponds today.

87. Koi pond heating using gas electric in UK temperature control

Different koi keepers and koi professionals have very different opinions on the benefits and motivations behind heating a koi pond.

88. Koi Ponds & Crystal Clear Pond Water No Green Algae Water

you are not alone if your pond becomes plagued with unwanted plant growth. Ponds are usually afflicted with either green water or blanket weed (and sometimes both) at sometime throughout the season. If you take early action, you can reduce the impact that unwanted algae, particularly green water, will have on your pond.

89. Koi Ponds Pumps Equipment Failure Pond Filters UV Clarifiers

As an aside, through trial and error, we found that running the systems on high-end garden pond pumps (rather than typical aquaculture recirculation pumps) was far more cost effective and reliable - a reflection on how demanding and competitive the garden and koi pond market has become.

90. Koi sight and sound Koi goldfish seeing & hearing senses

A kois sixth sense capitalises on the physical properties of its aquatic environment and works in partnership with two other key senses, (hearing and sight), to detect, locate and identify features of their dynamic environment.

91. Koi Skin & Scales - Protection Pigmentation. Spirulina care of koi skin

Care of the Skin: It is imperative for the health of our koi that the skin and mucus layers are kept intact. Netting and handling of Koi should be kept to a minimum as such episodes increase the risk of damage to their front line of protection. If it is necessary to handle koi, they should be netted with soft hand nets and lifted with wet hands.

92. Koi Sources Breeding Japan. Japanese Koi Region Niigata

Even though the art of breeding koi only developed into a commercial enterprise just under 2 centuries ago, these rice farmers of the Niigata region of Japan have still been producing koi for 150 years longer than their nearest rivals

93. Koi Sudden Death. Why did my koi or goldfish suddenly die

My koi has died suddenly. What is the sensible and practical course of action to take if such a koi or goldfish death incident arises in a pond? Remove the fish and carry out a simple external inspection, looking for obvious signs to cause of death.

94. Koi Types Japanese Meaning Interpretation of Koi Terms Names

One of the many challenges of keeping koi, besides keeping them fit and healthy can be understanding and even pronouncing their Japanese names. Each of the different varieties of koi have their own name, which is used to describe their colouration and pattern.

95. Loss of apetite why do my koi or pond goldfish stop feeding?

There are several reasons as to why koi may not feed, and it is a matter of discounting potential likely causes through a process of elimination.

96. Metallic Koi varieties Ogons Hikari Matsuba Utsuri Metallic Kohaku

Metallic Koi are probably the most eye-catching of all koi varieties. Whether it is their resemblance to bars of platinum or gold, or the glint of their flashing pectoral fins, metallic koi will always be found at the top of many pond owners shopping lists

97. Milky coloured koi ponds or garden goldfish pond water discoloured

My pond water is milky. The Japanese matting chambers are heavily aerated. An Aquamax 15,000 pulls the water from the filter to a 55W UV and then onwards to the two returns, mid-water and a venturi

98. My koi fish appear to be losing their colour. What can I do

However, when I returned to compare my own koi, I was very disappointed by how poor the quality of the red appeared to be on my own koi compared to the newly imported koi at my dealers

99. My koi or goldfish keep flicking or scratching? Parasites

Flicking, scratching, scraping or flashing fish usually catch our attention through the corner or our eye as the reflective mirror-like flanks of the fish which are usually vertical, are thrown into the horizontal reflecting the daylight from above.

100. New Filter Syndrome Small New Fish Koi Pond Problems

Thanks for your email which is full of very helpful detail. Your experiences are not uncommon amongst koi keepers as all of us have had to tread carefully through the first few months as our pond and filter matures to support a balanced, healthy stock of fish. There are recommended ways of accomplishing a mature pond without encountering too many water quality problems,

101. Niigata Japan - The Koi Home & Japanese Breeding Centre

We can easily overlook the hard task that koi put their breeders through, with many factors in addition to fundamental genetic issues conspiring against producing koi of the size, quality and colour that we expect almost by rights to come from Niigata.

102. Niigata Japan Capital Of Japanese Koi Breeding Farming Industry

Niigata is respected worldwide as the centre of the koi keeping hobby. The Niigata Prefecture is situated on the northern coast of Japan, directly north of Tokyo, approximately 2 hours travelling time on the Bullet train.

103. Niigata Japan Koi Keeping Breeding Home. Birthplace Koi hobby

Rather than culling these ornamental offspring to allow the stronger food fish to grow, the Niigata rice farmers positively selected for these colourful freaks of nature - these were the earliest ancestors of Niigata koi - the worlds most beautiful koi.

104. Niigata Japan. Japanese People Famous For Koi Farming Rearing

Every single koi that is produced in Niigata, Japan, is the culmination of generations of talent and expertise dedicated to the production of the worlds most beautiful koi. In fact, it is fair to say that even with everything else that Niigata has to offer koi farmers

105. Nishikigoi, feeding protein to get big healthy and fit koi

Protein is found at the heart of any diet. It is the only component of a diet that koi can use for growth, but must also be part of a complete and balanced diet also containing adequate oils, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals.

106. Nishikoi Koi Know How. Bagging, transporting avoid stress

What Happens inside a bag. Standard practice when bagging up koi for export or by a dealer after a sale is to fill the bag with approximately 1/5 water and 4/5 oxygen by volume. Sufficient water to keep the koi adequately submerged with most space being taken up by essential oxygen

107. Nishikoi Koi Know-How. Implications of using green algae pond controls

Without doubt, nuisance algae tops the list of UK pond owners complaints. Green water neednt be a problem for any pond owner who has recirculating water in their pond since ultra violet units (adapted from the food processing industry) have been introduced to the pond and aquatics industry.

108. Nitrite ammonia pond water problems new pondfilter NFS syndrome.

Since they stopped feeding, I have had a problem with fin rot, and I just cant get the ammonia or nitrite levels down to zero. This is really upsetting me he and my wife as since stocking our pond with koi three to four months ago, we have only really had success in the first month, please help.

109. Other Compatible Pond Fish For Keeping In A Goldfish Pond

Other Compatible Pond Fish For Keeping In A Goldfish Pond

110. Over-wintering koi goldfish hibernation cold freezing water ice

What actually goes on in a pond through the winter? Fish are cold blooded, which means that they take their body temperature from that of the surrounding environment.

111. Oxygen concentrations low in summer add aeration airstones venturis

Aeration Oxygen is the essence of life and is required in abundance in a well stocked koi pond. Oxygen quite readily dissolves passively diffusing from the atmosphere, but this limited amount is insufficient to satisfy the demands of koi and other oxygen-loving pond organisms such as beneficial bacteria and invertebrates in the filter.

112. Oxygen concentrations low in summer add aeration Hi-blow air pumps airstones venturis

Compared to many other fish species, koi are relatively tolerant of low dissolved oxygen concentrations (which is understandable, being a fish from slower moving warm waters). The range of DOC in a pond will run from a minimum (0mg/l) to a maximum (about 15mg/l), where even the supply of additional aeration would not change the DOC.

113. Oxygen, pond care, health koi & goldfish. Pond keeper articles

Oxygen, pond care, health of koi and goldfish. Discover all these articles here. Cjoose pumps, biofilters, UVcs and lots more armed with good information

114. Oxygen, pond care, health koi & goldfish. Pond keeper articles

Oxygen, pond care, health of koi and goldfish. Discover all these articles here. Cjoose pumps, biofilters, UVcs and lots more armed with good information

115. Planning a new koi pond. Running in a new garden fish pond

Our pond must also be designed with our fish and plants in mind, making sure that the finished project is not only pleasing on the eye, but also pleasing to our fish.

116. Pond A to Z: Genetics Goldfish Ginrin Gravel Growth Gut Gyrodactylus

Pond A to Z: Genetics is the science of inheritance. Although the production of artificially occurring ornamental fish started well before the complexities of genetics were fully understood, the pioneers of goldfish breeders in particular grasped some of the fundamental principles and used them to supreme effect. Ginrin Gravel Growth Gyrodactylus Gut

117. Pond A to Z: Hi Hormones Health Handling Koi Ich Immune

Pond A to Z: Hi Hormones Health Handling Koi Ich Immune

118. Pond A to Z: Koi Lateral Line, Liners Live food, Leeches, Leather Scales

The lateral line is similar to a dot-to-dot picture, where the dots found along the flanks of a fish link to form a clearly visible line. Each dot is a hole in a scale which links to a tube running beneath the series of holes or dots on the fishs body surface.

119. Pond clarity. Crystal Clear Koi Goldfish Pond Water Always

A stunning way of bringing living, moving splashes of colour into a garden is by keeping fish in a garden pond. The fish that are routinely kept in ponds are brightly coloured, ornamental varieties of their poorly coloured natural ancestors.

120. Pond Essentials Beginner Introduction to Pond Pump FilterType

Pump-fed filter. A submersible pump sited in the pond pumps water from the pond into a filter which is positioned above the water level. The water runs through the filter and returns to the pond under gravity, often feeding a waterfall.

121. Pond fish food How to choose good koi and goldfish growth food

We eat on average, 3 times a day, and according to a survey on lifestyle, we can expect to spend a total of 5 years of our life eating. Quite a full time occupation!

122. Pond freezes over winter weather ice frost frozen ponds

Natural water bodies such as lakes and ponds will freeze regularly throughout any typical winter and appear survive the experience with little impact on the fish or other aquatic life. So why bother to take on Jack Frost when he decides to visit our own garden ponds?

123. Pond Heaters. Heating koi ponds winter growth feeding benefits

There are two opinions with respect to heating koi ponds. Many koi keepers believe that koi should be given a typical winter period, while others believe that heating a pond is essential to maintain koi in the best of health throughout the year.

124. Pond keepers A to Z. Easter Eye Fluke Ergasilus (Gill Maggots)

Ergasilus (Gill Maggots) This parasite is called a gill maggot after their preferred area of infestation and the appearance of this pest (and their maggot-like egg sacs).

125. Pond keepers aquatic fish pond terms J to K ... Jumping to Koi

Jumping Koi ... An activity that koi keepers would rather not see in their koi. Very rarely an indicator of koi being full of the joys of life but more likely, unfortunately a behaviour borne out of irritation.

126. Pond keepers reference A to Z ... Carp to Colour Enhancers

Pond keepers often used terms in A to Z format prepared by Ben helm

127. Pond keepers reference A to Z ... Fibreglass to Fungus

Pond keepers often used terms in A to Z format prepared by Ben helm

128. Pond keepers reference terms A to Z ... Aeration to Argulus

Pond keepers often used terms in A to Z format prepared by Ben Helm

129. Pond keepers reference terms A to Z ... Bacteria, BKKS to Buying Koi

Firstly, those that are involved in breaking down and detoxifying ammonia into nitrite (Nitrosomonas bacteria) and nitrite into nitrate (Nitrobacter). These are aerobic bacteria and must be provided with oxygen. In fact the more oxygen that is provided the better they work.

130. Pond Keeping Answers beneficial bacteria and healthy fish ponds

Bacteria fulfil so many vital roles in shaping life on earth that we are still discovering new ways in which they affect the world we live in. It is not long after being introduced to koi keeping that we soon discover the two types of role that bacteria can play in our hobby

131. Pond Keeping Answers Birds, Parasites, Koi Ponds Health Questions

As I sat in my garden enjoying my koi , I started to wonder if the wild birds are introducing pests into the pond. As they fly away after a complete preening in my pond water

132. Pond keeping goldfish ponds koi health care. Koi fish pond ideas

Pond Keeping answers. Expert advice by a world ornamental pond fish authority. Koi, Goldfish ... Ben Helm answers your koi pond & goldfish pond health, care, feeding, & breeding queries. Having water quality concerns? Worried about your koi behaviour problems? Not sure about your ponds bio filter? Explore this large aquatics site for free ...

133. Pond keeping goldfish ponds koi health care. Koi fish pond ideas

Pond Keeping answers. Expert advice by a world ornamental pond fish authority. Koi, Goldfish ... Ben Helm answers your koi pond & goldfish pond health, care, feeding, & breeding queries. Having water quality concerns? Worried about your koi behaviour problems? Not sure about your ponds bio filter? Explore this large aquatics site for free ...

134. Pond leaks low water level. leaking pipes ponds waterfalls streams

However, if upon suspecting a leak, rather than going to the extremes of emptying a pond and examining every square inch with the stealth of Sherlock Holmes, it would be wise, as any fine detective would agree, to think laterally and look for alternative causes other than the obvious.

135. Pond Metabolism - How balanced is your koi or garden goldfish pond?

Our ponds metabolism can also determine both the functioning and health of our pond environment that we provide for our koi

136. Pond pH levels alkaline or acidic depend on pond water type

pH on the other hand is different. It doesnt actually exist as a substance in its own right but is a description given to pond water as to how it is likely to interact with its environment.

137. Pond pondfish care August to autumn ready for winter

As August turns into September, our pond enters its last scene her before the final curtain of winter approaches. Even at this late stage, the story could still have two endings, either as a tragedy or with the ponds players living on happily ever after.

138. Pond Pumps For Health Wellbeing of Koi Gold fish Ponds

A pond pump is an essential piece of equipment in a koi pond. It has one of the least glamorous roles to play, yet every healthy pond will be powered by a reliable pump. A pond pump has a most demanding job, working full time, 24 hours a day, and in most cases 365 days a year,

139. Pond pumps, pump fails & no oxygen goes to pond bio filter

Without the re-circulating action of a pond pump, the clarity and quality of the pond water and the health of its koi would be at risk.

140. Pond UVs UVCs UV Sterilisers UV Clarifiers Clear Pond Water Algae

Using UV light to disinfect water of such microbes is called UV sterilisation. Ultra violet light has also been demonstrated to have an algicidal effect on pelagic single-celled algae by causing them to flocculate into large clumps. These can then be filtered mechanically from pond water. The success of ultraviolet light as a germicidal and algicidal treatment lies in its simplicity of use and installation.

141. Pond water treatments. Tap water conditioners. Heavy metal neutralisation:

Pond water treatments (as opposed to medications) are those formulations that can be added to a pond to improve a kois environment. We will be looking at how some tapwater conditioners and blanketweed treatments actually work, once added to the pond

142. Ponds A to Z Nets Nishikigoi Nutrition Nitrobacter Nitrosomonas Nitrogen

Netting and bowling or bagging koi is a skill that only experience can teach how to carry it out in a quick, safe and stress-free way as possible. Fish should be encouraged to swim towards a hand-net, (rather than chased by a net). This is achieved by positioning a net in the direction in which a koi is swimming, capturing it head-first.

143. Ponds A to Z Pathogens Ponds Poikilothermic Pop-Eye Pond Pumps

The pond pump must be the most reliable piece of koi keeping equipment. It is the heart of the pond, recirculating the water through the filtration system, besides performing other aesthetic functions such as giving life to fountains and waterfalls.

144. Ponds A to Z Quarantine Refractometer Reproduction Spawn

Quarantine is the procedure where newly imported or purchased Koi are subjected to a period of isolation. There are two objectives of quarantine

145. Ponds A-Z Tapeworm Temperature Test Kits Transportation Treatment

Tapeworms are one of the largest parasites to affect koi. Living in the intestine or body cavity, these mouth-less parasites absorb nutrients directly through their skin from the koi.

146. Ponds A-Z Undergravel Ulcers UV UVC Vats Venturi Vortex Virus Ultra Violet

A venturi offers a means of injecting air into a pumped water return. Popular where a multi-chamber filter sits alongside a pond, a venturi is a tube that takes water, adapted with a constriction and an air intake pipe protruding above the waters surface. Significant volumes of air can be drawn into the water flow and injected into the pond water when using a venturi.

147. Ponds A-Z Water Quality Whitespot Zeolite Zooplankton Zoug Jar

Zeolite is an off-white clay-like mineral that has desirable chemical adsorbing properties. Its use in the koi world is as an ammonia adsorbing substrate that should be used as a short-term remedy for peaks in ammonia brought about by overstocking, overfeeding or filtration problems. As a means of chemical filtration zeolite should be placed as late in the filtration process as possible. Its porous nature makes it very liable to clogging, and its efficiency declines greatly if it is allowed to do so

148. Q&A; Ponds Water Management Foaming or Cloudy Water

How do you know what is an acceptable level of foaming or cloudiness? Is foamy or cloudy water harmful to Koi? What causes it? And how can I prevent it? Are there any sure-fire ways of ensuring crystal-clear water?

149. Role pond plants maintaining stable fish pond environment.

On the other hand, a clear, filtered recirculating koi pond that is heavily stocked relies on artificial inputs of food and a means of removing the excessive levels of the resultant waste.

150. Seasonal fish foods. Do I need different koi foods in winter?

Will my koi really suffer if I feed the growth food until it runs out or is it critical that I switch to a wheatgerm diet as soon as the temperature drops? Could I not simplify things and feed them one diet all-year-round? Id appreciate some clarification.

151. Should I heat my new koi pond this winter. What temperature?

If you could give me some advice now on heating the koi pond, filtration, and any other pieces of equipment that may need altering, I will be able to prepare myself for when winter hits us. Thank you very much for a great magazine.

152. Showing Koi Japanese English Style Koi Shows Benching Judging

Can you give me some advice/information on the koi shows. Is there a fee to enter the fish, and how exactly are the koi categorised

153. Significant Koi Food Innovations Functional Ingredients in Koi Food

It is interesting to chart the developments in koi nutrition over the last few decades and see how both the understanding of a kois nutritional requirements and the manufacturing process involved have changed.

154. Small garden fish pond problems, new pond syndrome

There are recommended ways of accomplishing a mature pond without encountering too many water quality problems, but from your description, it sounds as though you might have made a number of unfortunate errors that are only now starting to cause you some problems.

155. Step 2 Koi Keeping Answers - Providing the environment

In step one, we quite surprisingly suggested that the best environment for our koi is a natural mud pond rather than a clear and filtered koi pond. Koi exhibit their best condition when reared in this natural environment as it supplies their every need in an unrivalled way

156. Step 3. Koi Husbandry and Koi Keeping Skills Development.

Good husbandry skills are an essential part of successful koi keeping and may involve less hands-on work than you may have first thought. Koi husbandry covers aspects of how we handle, interact and even observe our koi, and describes the full range of the control and management activities that we carry out so that our koi will thrive in our pond.

157. Step 4 - Maintaining health preventing disease in koi ponds.

In the 4th part of the 10 steps to successful koi keeping we start to turn our focus on the koi themselves. So far we have looked indirectly at the needs of koi and how we can manage their pond environment to achieve success.

158. Step 5: Fish Disease - Diagnosing & Treating In Koi Ponds

Unfortunately, it is a fact of life that disease will inevitably affect every koi or goldfish pond at some time - making it necessary for us to diagnose and treat the disease effectively. We have already seen that it is quite natural for koi to carry a low level of disease, being kept in balance by the fishes immune system

159. Step 6 - Food feeding koi goldfish in a garden pond environment.

As koi keepers, feeding koi is one of our most enjoyable activities. It represents the time when we are able to connect with our koi, and partake fully in an interactive relationship with our dependents. I would even be as bold to suggest that koi keeping would lose a great deal of its appeal if we were not required to feed them.

160. Step 7 - Filtration and bio filters for koi goldfish ponds.

Installing a bio filter is the price we have to pay for wanting to keep koi in an artificial pond. It performs the functions that occur naturally in a lake or river within a compact unit and is arguably the single most important factor that makes keeping koi in an artificial pond a possibility.
161. Step 9 to koi keeping success: avoiding common koi pond problems.

The vast majority of problems in a koi pond a can be traced back to water quality. As this vital topic has been discussed in previous articles in this series as well as its impact on koi health (and how to respond to disease), it gives us an opportunity to look at other types of problems in a koi pond.

162. Step 9: Understanding Koi Pond Degree Days Calendar Year.

Koi have a fascinating physiology that responds to changes in their environment in a way that not only determines their behaviour, but also ours as their keeper. With a degree of certainty, we are able to predict when koi are likely to hibernate, grown and even breed, as koi behaviour is controlled by the different seasons.

163. Step by step koi guide Creating the perfect pond environment

Throughout this series of looking at the 10 steps to successful koi keeping, a number of topics that are key to achieving success with koi will be discussed. Arguably, the most fundamental factor that underpins all others on the road to success is creating a perfect environment (if such a thing can exist) for koi

164. Step by step koi keeping step 10 koi spawning & breeding

Having followed the previous 9 steps to successful koikeeping, the final step - koi breeding, can prove a contentious topic amongst koi keepers.

165. Stress in koi gold fish. How to avoid stress in your koi fish pond

Stress experienced by koi or gold fish is the result of a prolonged series of chemical changes that are brought about by fish experiencing a stressor that is causing a negative impact on that fish.

166. Tankless Hot water heaters compare water storage tank heater energy costs

In a hot water storage tank heater, energy is required to heat the water in the tank and to keep it hot. In both storage and tankless heaters, the basic efficiencies of heating the water are very similar; in fact, the energy consumptions are very similar. This is because the amount of energy required to heat a fixed amount of water is determined by a simple formula as follows ...

167. Temperature swings. Koi Goldfish Feeding & water temperature

Nature dictates that if it is warm enough for fish to feed then it is also warm enough for them to utilise that food (to a lesser degree at the coolest temperatures). The poorer they do digest and assimilate food, the greater the waste that will be excreted into the pond, burdening your filter and potentially leading to a water quality problem

168. The Great Big Koi Breeding Koi Pond Fish Spawning Guide

What was not explained to me at the time was that I was not witnessing fish trying to kill each other but quite the reverse, these fish were so distracted and oblivious to my observations because the goldfish and koi were so intent on spawning with each other.

169. The Journey of Digestion. How Koi and Goldfish Digest Fish Food.

However, even though koi have improved on the drab carp livery, they have retained the digestive capabilities of a carp and as we will see, because of their rough-n-ready natural diet, they have an ability to digest a vast array of natural food items.

170. The koi skeleton koi & other garden pond fish are vertebrates

Koi are vertebrates, clearly benefiting from having an internal backbone and skeleton. Koi belong to the most advanced group of fish called teleosts which describes their bony skeleton

171. The Pond Doctor Site Map

The Pond Doctor site map link to all web pages covering all koi pond subjects

172. Tinged koi pond water. Causes discoloured fish pond water?

Although the pond is apparently healthy and balanced, it is relatively clear but has developed a tinge and is not as clear or sparkling as some other ponds I have seen, especially those at my koi dealers store. What causes tinged or discoloured fish pond water

173. To Feed or not to feed your pond fish or koi or goldfish

To Feed or not to feed koi and goldfish. Feeding time is probably the most enjoyable and rewarding pondkeeping activity. However, when you feed your fish is as vital as what you feed them

174. Ulcers on koi and goldfish. Medications. Medicine Dosage Rates.

The range of medications available to Koi keepers like me is baffling; Which ones treat which conditions? Do I need to isolate this particular Koi to treat it or should I treat the whole pond?

175. Understanding the koi's digestive system and how it works

This is also true about many aspects of koi keeping and no more so than how a kois diet relates to its digestive system. As with a cars engine, the more we can understand and appreciate about a kois digestive physiology, the more we can respond to it and benefit from understanding why we can feed a different number of diets.

176. UV or ultra violet light for koi garden fish pond algae control

The UVC has brought crystal clear water within the reach of any DIY pond owner at a reasonable price. Very straight forward to install, a koi pond is now regarded as being incomplete without a UVC.

177. Water Garden Fish Pond Landscaping Features Solutions Designs Ideas

Every family garden should include a fish or water lily pond. Every single garden pond should be a joy to behold, full of life and never-ending wonder & surprise. Treasure your environment and investment. Your dreams come true ...

178. Water Gardens Gazette Subscription Free Gift Special Prices

Subscribers to the gazette are welcome to download completely free my 24 pages book. Right click this link below and select Save target as .... then save to a convenient location on your hard drive. Introduction To Ponds, Pumps and Water Gardens In addition USA subscribers are offered special prices applicable to Gazette readers only on a very large range of pond supplies including high performance biofilter units. To access this site click this link

179. Water gardens ideas fish pond pumps garden features pond filters uv bio

Truckloads of FREE water gardening & water features information ... Delight in your crystal clear water gardens

180. Water Quality Important Testing Times For Fish Pond Water
Problems can occur in a small koi or fish pond where the number of fish can be unnaturally high. This is accepted as the norm, and should not lead to a decline in water quality if a number of guidelines are followed.

181. What If I go on holiday? What about my koi or goldfish?

Being a koi keeper does not mean that two weeks holiday in the sun each year is not allowed.

182. What if I have overdosed pond with medications or treatments?

Overdosing a pond with medication can have several adverse effects on koi including intoxication and suffocation through DO removal

183. What if koi or gold fish develops an ulcer? How do I treat koi ulcers

Ulcers are holes that develop on the exterior of a fish (usually on the flanks or underneath) where an internal bacterial infection at first causes a localised area of scales to redden and become raised. The rampant and infectious nature of the infectious bacteria cause the scales soon to drop off

184. What if my koi are gasping? Dissolved oxygen koi ponds

Koi breathe by pumping water over their gills to extract essential oxygen, which is invisibly dissolved in the pond water. Fortunately, compared to other fish species, koi do not require an especially high level of dissolved oxygen (DO) which makes them relatively undemanding in this area.

185. What if my koi or goldfish appear to be losing their colour?

The colours exhibited by koi are seated in the skin which is living, and like other physiological characteristics of koi, is affected by changes to its environment

186. What if my koi or goldfish pond develops a surface foam

One such phenomenon that does occur as a result of interactions within a pond but does not have a significant effect on koi health is foaming or the formation of very stable bubbles on the surface of the pond.

187. What if my pond is always murky cloudy or coloured

At some time we are likely to have asked questions such as How do they keep their water so crystal clear? or, what are they doing that I am not? when we have seen truly clear water. Lets consider what causes cloudy water

188. What if the pH of my pond keeps changing? Pond pH control

Koi benefit significantly from stable water conditions, where water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, ammonia and nitrite should be maintained within desirable levels. This is especially true for pH which must be remain consistently between pH 7 and pH 9

189. What if the pond temperature suddenly drops in a cold spell in autumn?

What is the best we can do if we actually do experience a prolonged summer into September and out of the blue have a cold frosty night or perhaps even the first ice of winter?

190. What if you decide to move house koi goldfish? Step by step guide

Moving house and your pond anmals including koi and goldfishStep by step guide to ensuring healthy water quality is provided for koi during a move.

191. What is blanket weed or string algae? Why so difficult to remove?

How to rid your pond of blanketweed or string algae.

192. What is happening in my koi or goldfish pond in spring time

Springtime presents us with the perfect opportunity for checking the condition that winter may have left our koi or goldfish pond in and to look forward to the summer by carrying out any necessary maintenance, nurturing our koi out of their winter slumber.

193. What is Koi or Fish Osmosis and Osmoregulation

Osmosis is the movement of water from a high water concentration (such as pond water) to an area of comparatively low water concentration (koi tissue) through a semi-permeable membrane. The gills act as a semi-permeable membrane where their structure allows the free movement of small molecules (such as water) in any direction, but restricting the movement of larger molecules.

194. What to do about bloated koi swimming difficulties unsightly

Besides being unsightly, such koi will often swim with apparent discomfort, wriggling with difficulty and adopting a strange pose in the water. Such symptoms are quite common, especially in older fish, and can be caused in a number of different ways.

195. What to do when you move and you

What to do when you move and you have a koi pond with fish

196. Why do my koi die in my pond at spring time & have biofilter

I lost some koi last spring. There was one in particular that was fine up until a week previously when she started to swim alone and got in the way of the male fish who kept bumping into her. After she died I opened her up and she was full of eggs and a lot of blood . I wondered if shed had an internal haemorrhage or had become egg bound.

197. Why keep koi, why take so much trouble with a fish pond?

Have you ever asked yourself a very simple question Why do I keep Koi? Summarising, people keep koi because they have so much to offer.

198. Winter to spring. How to restart your koi or goldfish pond

Now is the time to take stock and respond to your assessment of the pond and its equipment, ensuring that winter merges seamlessly into spring and then on into summer

199. Without oxygen, pond filter bacteria cannot oxidise (detoxify) ammonia

The physical nature of water puts limitations on how much oxygen we can expect our pond water to hold. It also sets our goals for what we should expect to achieve under different pond conditions. In the air we breathe, there is approximately 21% oxygen. In any natural water body, we will typically only find 1% dissolved oxygen, and usually less than that. So minute are the concentrations of dissolved oxygen in pond water, that their levels are measured in milligrams per litre or parts per million (ppm). For example 3 milligrams of oxygen dissolved in a litre of water equates to 3 ppm.

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